- Oil is the literal lifeblood of many modern economies.
- Every year somewhere in the order of 90 million barrels of oil are produced each day, and pipes and ships transport this to all four corners of the world.
- While most of the time, this happens without incident, inevitably, accidents do happen.
Our modern world depends significantly on how crude oil and its derivatives are found, refined, and shipped. Whether they be used to run our cars, planes, ships, and trains or produce the capsules we need to take our daily vitamin supplements, the modern world would be a very different place without crude oil, reports Interesting Engineering.
What’s the worst oil spill in history?
The answer to this is a toss-up between two of the most famous oil spills in recent history. These are the 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill and the 1991 Persian Gulf War oil spill.
The reason for the confusion is that it is unclear just how much oil was released by the latter, with estimates of between 380 million and 580 million gallons of oil spilled. However, it is next to impossible to know for sure, but more on that later.
For this reason, we’ll err on the side of caution and declare the Deepwater Horizon disaster as the worst, as we have provable values for the amount of oil released.
Also known as the “BP oil spill,” it was an industrial catastrophe that started on April 20, 2010, in the Gulf of Mexico off the coast of the United States on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect.
To this day, it is still the biggest marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry. The federal government estimated the overall discharge to be about 210 million US gallons or roughly 795,000 m3.
The well was declared blocked on September 19, 2010, following multiple unsuccessful attempts to stop the flow. Though 2012 reports claimed the well site was still leaking.
A tremendous effort was made to stop the oil from spreading by using skimmer ships, floating booms, controlled burns, and thousands of liters of oil dispersant.
Extensive damage to marine and wildlife habitats, as well as to the vital fishing and tourism sectors in the Gulf, was recorded as a result of the spill, which lasted for months, and negative consequences from the reaction and cleanup efforts.
Throughout 2013, oil cleanup teams worked four days a week on 55 miles (89 km) of Louisiana shoreline. As far away from the Macondo site as the waters off Florida’s Panhandle and Tampa Bay, where scientists believe the oil and dispersant mixture is lodged in the sand, oil was still being discovered.
According to reports from April 2013, dolphins and other marine animals continued to perish in record numbers, with young dolphins dying at a rate six times higher than usual. According to other studies, oil from the leak caused malformations in the hearts and other organs in tuna and amberjack that were expected to be lethal or, at the very least, reduce lifespans. Another study discovered that cardiotoxicity may have become common in animal species exposed to the spill.
The reasons behind the explosion and record-breaking leak became the subject of numerous investigations. The United States Government assessment, released in September 2011, blamed BP in the majority and rig operator Transocean and contractor Halliburton for the well’s poor construction. A White House commission also held BP and its partners accountable for several cost-cutting measures and a weak safety system earlier in 2011.
Still, it also concluded that the spill had “systemic” root causes and might happen again without significant reform in both business practices and governmental policies.
BP and the US Department of Justice settled on federal criminal charges in November 2012. BP pleaded guilty to 11 counts of manslaughter, two misdemeanors, and a felony count of lying to the US Congress. Additionally, BP consented to four years of government oversight of its safety procedures and business conduct.
The Environmental Protection Agency declared BP temporarily ineligible for new contracts with the American government. BP and the Department of Justice agreed on record-breaking fines and other payments totaling $4.525 billion. As of 2018, the corporation had incurred more than $65 billion in costs related to clean-up, charges, and penalties.
A United States District Court judge found in September 2014 that the company was principally accountable for the oil leak due to BP’s egregious carelessness and reckless behavior. One of the highest corporate settlements in US history, $20.8 billion in fines, was agreed upon by BP in April 2016.
What are the worst oil spills in history?
The most significant oil spills in history have resulted in the release of tens of millions of gallons of oil, contaminated fisheries, dead and injured wildlife, and decreased tourism. To this end, here are some of the worst oil spills in history.
1. The 1978 Amoco Cadiz oil
Gallons of oil spilled: Approx. 69 million
On the morning of March 16, 1978, the Amoco Cadiz, a very large crude carrier (VLCC) loaded with roughly 69 million gallons of light crude oil, grounded on shallow rocks off the coast of Brittany, France.
The ship’s rudder and hydraulic system were harmed by a massive wave traversing the English Channel’s choppy waters. Rescue tugs attempted to attach towlines to the Cadiz, but the task was challenging due to the rough seas.
A few hours after being fastened, the first of the towlines broke. By the time a second line could be attached, the Cadiz had already been propelled by winds and waves toward the shore of Brittany, where her stern and middle part had struck some submerged rocks.
The impact tore holes in the container tanks and hull, letting the oil out. The oil slick, which killed millions of invertebrates, including mollusks and crabs, and an estimated 20,000 birds, fouled oyster beds in the area and covered around 200 miles (321 km) of the French coast.
Owners of the Cadiz, Amoco Corporation, agreed to pay French claims $120 million in 1990 and an additional $35 million to Royal Dutch Shell, the owner of the lost oil.
2. The 1983 Castillo de Bellver oil spill
Gallons of oil spilled: Approx. 79 million (though perhaps only 53.4 million)
The Castillo de Bellver oil tanker capsized in August 1983 due to a fire on board. The ship was situated in the South Atlantic Ocean, about 70 miles (113 km) off Cape Town, South Africa coast, when the fire started on August 6th.
The ship broke into two sections and began to drift; the stern half, containing about 110,000 tonnes of oil, traveled 24 miles (38.6 km) off the coast before sinking into the deep sea.
Engineers moved the tanker’s forward portion away from the coast, where they sank it with explosives. Most of the oil released at the surface was collected in the Benguela Current and taken out to sea before it dispersed, causing little environmental harm even though some of the oil slick burned during the fire.
Although many accounts state that the ship carried 79 million gallons of crude oil when the fire began, some sources estimate the tanker’s load to be around 53.5 million.
3. The 1983 Nowruz oil field incidents
Gallons of oil spilled: Approx. 80 million
A tanker struck an Iranian oil platform on February 10, 1983, over the Nowruz oil field in the northern Persian Gulf. The platform listed 45 degrees due to the hit, corrosion, and wave energy worked to topple the platform and break its wellhead.
Before it was finally sealed up in September 1983, the well leaked around 1,500 barrels (63,000 gallons) of oil into the Persian Gulf daily. The northern Persian Gulf was a contested battleground during the Iran-Iraq War in the early 1980s, and one month after the tanker crash, Iraqi helicopters assaulted another adjacent platform.
Before it was plugged more than two years later, the damage to this second platform caused the spill of around 733,000 barrels (or 31 million gallons) of oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Around 20 workers lost their lives while trying to cap the wells during the capping and repair activities carried out by Iran under fire from the Iraqis.
According to estimates, these two disasters resulted in an oil spill of almost 80 million gallons. Some of the oil was cleaned up by skimmers and other tools, but as sand mingled with the floating oil at the surface, an estimated two-thirds of the total volume dropped to the seafloor as tarballs.
4. The 1994 Kolva River oil spill
Gallons of oil spilled: Approx. 84 million
A leak in a deteriorated oil pipeline in the Russian Arctic led to the Kolva River oil spill. For eight months, a dike kept the oil at the rupture site contained, but it eventually failed, allowing some 84 million gallons of oil to seep into the Kolva River.
Tundra and marshes of at least 72 square miles (186 square km) were contaminated by oil. Millions of gallons of oil were released into the environment through pipeline leaks, some of which made it to the Kolva River.
5. The 1992 Mingbulak (Fergana Valley) oil spill
Gallons of oil spilled: Approx. 88 million
The deadliest oil leak in Asia and the worst land-based oil disaster in history happened in Uzbekistan on March 2, 1992. Oil spilled into a valley close to the city of Fergana after a well blowout.
Before the pressure in the hole started to drop, the oil caught fire and burnt for two months.
6. The 1979 Atlantic Empress oil spill
Gallons of oil spilled: Approx. 90 million
Around 10 miles (16 kilometers) off the islands of Trinidad and Tobago, the Atlantic Empress disaster dumped an estimated 90 million gallons of oil into the ocean.
The largest tanker spill in history occurred on July 19th, 1979, when the VLCCs Atlantic Empress and Aegean Captain collided during a tropical storm. The former took the brunt of the collision even though both ships caught fire, and the fire sparked an oil slick.
After being pulled away from the land, the Atlantic Empress burned for two weeks before sinking. However, the Aegean Captain’s fire was put out, and the ship was towed to Trinidad.
Despite the massive amount of oil spilled during the accident, the beaches on neighboring islands suffered very little environmental harm; winds carried most of the oil out to sea, where it dispersed.
However, 27 sailors did lose their lives in the accident.
7. The 1979 Ixtoc 1 oil spill
Gallons of oil spilled: Approx. 126 to 140 million
Between June 1979 and March 1980, the Ixtoc 1 catastrophe in Mexico caused the flow of up to 140 million gallons of crude oil into the Bay of Campeche.
The Ixtoc 1 platform, which was drilling exploration wells in 164 feet (approximately 50 meters) of water, experienced an explosion that started the spill. When the drilling mud failed to circulate, an accumulation of oil and gas in the pipe led to the explosion.
The blowout preventer wasn’t working, so when workers tried to remove the drill so that material could flow back down the line and fill the hole, a slurry of mud, oil, and natural gas rushed up the pipe and bypassed it.
The gases caught fire when they touched the whirling motors on the surface. Over the following nine months, between 126 and 140 million gallons of oil were released into the southern Gulf of Mexico.
Some of this oil washed up on the beaches from the western Yucatan Peninsula to southern Texas, causing hundreds of millions of dollars worth of lost tourism revenue and a decline in commercial fishing in the area for up to five years.
8. The 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon oil disaster
Gallons of oil spilled: Approx. 134 to 210 million
On April 20, 2010, a surge of natural gas blasted through a cement well cap that had just been set up to plug a well dug by the Deepwater Horizon oil platform, causing the largest unintentional oil spill in history to start in the Gulf of Mexico.
When the gas ignited on the platform after traveling up the rig’s riser, it killed 11 workers and injured 17. Two days later, the oil platform flipped over and sank.
According to the U.S. District Court’s findings, 134 million gallons of oil were leaked before the well was sealed up on September 17, and about 1,300 miles (2,100 km) of the U.S. Gulf Coast from Texas to Florida were covered in oil.
According to some accounts, the amount of oil discharged may have reached 210 million gallons.
The oil firm BP, which was found to be at fault, agreed to pay $65 billion in settlements to those whose livelihoods depended on the Gulf of Mexico.
9. The 1991 Persian Gulf War oil spill
Gallons of oil spilled: Believed but not confirmed to be between 380 and 520 million
As previously mentioned, this is possibly the worst oil spill in history if estimates of spilled oil are accurate. What’s more, it did not happen by chance.
Iraq’s leader, Saddam Hussein, gave the order to invade and occupy Kuwait on August 2, 1990, with the ostensible goals of obtaining Kuwait’s substantial oil reserves, paying off a significant debt Iraq owed Kuwait, and enhancing Iraqi authority in the area.
To drive the Iraqis out, the United States formed a coalition that included the British, French, Egyptians, Saudis, Syrians, and others.
In January and February 1991, Iraqi forces withdrew after a significant air and ground operation, but not before lighting hundreds of Kuwaiti oil wells on fire, which burned for months.
Iraqi forces also discharged hundreds of millions of gallons of oil from Kuwait’s Sea Island terminal into the northern Persian Gulf before hostilities ended, to dissuade the coalition from deploying marines and other amphibious troops in northern Kuwait and southern Iraq.
According to some reports, between 380 and 520 million gallons of oil were deliberately dumped into the Gulf.
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Source: Interesting Engineering