How Shipping Moves Ahead To Run on Zero-Carbon Fuels

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India has started supplying ‘green ships’ to traditional shipbuilding nations Norway, Germany, and the US, boosting its ambition to become a global shipping hub. The move comes amid an international environmental focus on the shipping industry. While ships are responsible for ferrying most goods around the world, they are also responsible for emitting substantial amounts of greenhouse gases, reports Xinde Maritime.

The incident

The issue has become critical since the global energy crisis caused by the Russia-Ukraine war, which has sparked renewed interest in making ’green ships’—vessels that typically run on less polluting fuels such as methanol, electricity, green hydrogen, and hybrid batteries. In addition, the shipyard has signed contracts with Norwegian clients to build two container vessels fuelled by green hydrogen. Another contract for supplying eight ‘eco-freighters’ to HS Schiffahrts Group, Germany. marks CSL’s entry into the so-called short-sea shipping market, which consists of ports located in Europe.The private sector too is helping strengthen domestic maritime manufacturing. Goa-based Chowgule and Co has bagged contracts for building eight electric hybrid cargo vessels from European clients. Mint reported in January 2022 about India working on a unique plan to run ships completely on green energy. Shipping minister Sarbananda Sonowal in a recent interview to Mint said that more such orders are expected to be placed by European clients with Indian shipyards.

Alliances for Decarbonization

HMM, Samsung Heavy Industries, Panasia, and Korea Register of Shipping to collaborate on reducing carbon emissions: HMM, Samsung Heavy Industries, Panasia, and the Korean Register of Shipping signed a business agreement for integrated empirical research on ship carbon dioxide capture and liquefaction storage technology (OCCS). The four companies will form a joint working group to conduct research on OCCS technology. HMM plans to install OCCS developed with domestic technology on a 2,100 TEU container ship that is currently in operation and conduct empirical research at sea within this year. Samsung Heavy Industries and Panasia will design, manufacture, install, and commission the OCCS, while HMM will be responsible for its operation. The Korean Register of Shipping will conduct a risk assessment of the ships.

Glenfarne and Samsung Engineering ally on hydrogen and ammonia projects: Glenfarne Energy Transition, a wholly owned subsidiary of Glenfarne Group, has announced the execution and launch of a collaboration agreement with Samsung Engineering, an EPC&PM company, to complete feasibility studies for multiple green hydrogen and ammonia projects in Chile as part of Glenfarne’s recently announced Hydrogen Fuels Initiative. According to Glenfarne, Green Pegasus is the first project being developed as part of the agreement. It is expected to have up to two gigawatts (GW) of solar PV installed capacity and is estimated to produce 459 kilotonnes (kton) of green ammonia and 89 kton of green hydrogen annually. Glenfarne said that Green Pegasus will primarily focus on export to Asia, particularly South Korea, and Europe, where the company maintains several business and commercial partners.

Wärtsilä, DNV partner with Anglo-Eastern on vessel compliance reporting: Finnish technology company Wärtsilä and DNV’s industry cloud platform Veracity have entered a partnership with Anglo-Eastern to work on vessel compliance reporting. As informed, the companies plan to integrate Wärtsilä’s Fleet Optimisation Solution (FOS) and Veracity. With the integration, Wärtsilä will send real-time operational data with customer consent to Veracity, where it is quality assured and made ready for DNV’s verification services, making emissions compliance reporting more efficient for the partners’ common customers. FOS includes Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) connectivity, cloud computing power, machine learning, big data analytics, and mobile applications both on board and ashore.

Pacific Environment and Korean Maritime Institute Sign MOU to Accelerate Zero-Emission Shipping and Ports: During the 2023 World ESG Forum, Pacific Environment and The Korea Maritime Institute signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) outlining a vision of multi-year collaboration to accelerate zero-emission shipping and ports in the Republic of Korea, across Asia, and globally. The MoU Signing Ceremony occurred during the 2023 World ESG Forum in Jeju, Republic of Korea, titled “Human Dignity through ESG.” The MOU states, “…objective of this MOU is to create a mechanism and framework for cooperation between KMI and PE accelerate zero-emission shipping and ports in Republic of Korea, across Asia, and globally, by clearly defining the strategic opportunities for exchange between the parties. And it is to identify the roles and responsibilities in the cooperation activities of the parties in order to ensure mutual understanding and mutual benefits.”

Research Study

New study paves the way for 1st STS ammonia bunkering in Singapore: The Global Centre for Maritime Decarbonisation (GCMD) has completed an ammonia bunkering safety study to enable the first ammonia ship-to-ship (STS) bunkering in the Port of Singapore. As disclosed, the GCMD worked together with its appointed consultant, DNV Maritime Advisory (DNV) supported by Surbana Jurong (SJ) and the Singapore Maritime Academy (SMA) at the Singapore Polytechnic (SP). The study was commissioned in January 2022. The 9-month-long study has resulted in a report titled “Safety and Operational Guidelines for Piloting Ammonia Bunkering in Singapore”. The study analyzed capacity needs and feasible operating concepts; it recommends suitable sites for pilots and identifies hazards, key risks, and mitigation measures. The report also estimated the total capital expenditure for the additional infrastructure buildout needed to operationalize ammonia bunkering at two land-based sites.

DNV joins study on methanol bunkering for Singapore: Classification society DNV has joined a working group that aims to develop a technical reference (TR) for methanol bunkering for Singapore, the world’s largest bunkering hub. The working group includes government agencies, bunker suppliers, bunker craft operators, engine manufacturers, testing and certification bodies, shipowners and operators, terminal operators, as well as classification societies such as DNV.

The technical reference (TR) that the group is developing will cover custody transfer requirements (quantity and quality) for the delivery of methanol as a bunker fuel. It will examine all aspects of bunkering, from the bunker tanker to the receiving vessels, examining the operational and safety requirements for methanol bunkering, as well as crew training and competency. The announcement of the development of the TR comes alongside record-breaking orders for vessels capable of using alternative fuels. DNV’s Alternative Fuels Insight (AFI) platform, which tracks orders and bunkering locations for alternative fuels, logged orders for 35 methanol-fuelled vessels in 2022 – more than the 26 vessels currently in operation. Likewise for LNG, the most popular alternative fuel to date, the new buildingwill more than double the fleet in service upon delivery.

Industry Actions

TECO 2030 kicks off the manual production of hydrogen fuel cell stacks: Norwegian cleantech company TECO 2030 has started manual production of hydrogen fuel cell stacks at its Innovation Center in Narvik, Norway. The company emphasized that manual production of fuel cell stacks is an essential step towards the commercialization of TECO 2030’s fuel cell technology. The fuel cell system is developed for marine applications and follows strict classification approvals. The system is designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy efficiency in various applications, including marine transport, power generation, and heavy-duty transportation. With the start of manual fuel cell stack production, TECO 2030 is on track to deliver on its commitment to providing sustainable solutions to shipowners and helping reduce greenhouse gas emissions and addressing climate change in energy-intensive industries.

X-Press Feeders forges ahead with a dual-fueled sustainable shipping fleet: Global common carrier X-Press Feeders is on track to get its eight dual-fuel ships operational in 2024 and considering other zero-carbon fuels to achieve sustainable shipping in the long run, CEO Shmuel Yoskovitz told S&P Global Commodity Insights in an interview. The dual fuel ships will be deployed in Europe and run either on LNG or green methanol, paving the way for the company to achieve carbon-neutral shipping by 2050, Yoskovitz said on the sidelines of the Capital Link Forum on April 24.

ZeroNorth and Vitol sign a long-term strategic partnership to develop more robust reporting of emissions and enhance vessel operations: Technology company ZeroNorth announced it has signed a long-term strategic partnership with energy and commodity leader Vitol. The deal will see Vitol gain full access to the ZeroNorth platform, and ZeroNorth customers will in turn gain access to Vitol’s carbon reduction solutions and bunkering services, through the subsidiary Vitol Bunkers. The announcement means that Vitol will use the ZeroNorth platform to optimize operations in several key business areas, including voyage, vessel, bunker, and emissions optimization, vessel reporting, and vessel selection.


RINA, WMU pen MoU for leadership and innovation: Italian classification society RINA has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the World Maritime University (WMU) aimed at promoting academic, technical, and educational exchange between the two institutions. The MoU aims to inspire leadership and innovation for a sustainable maritime and ocean future. The MoU, signed in Genoa, is expected to present opportunities for field study training exchanges for WMU students, exchange of academic information, and, where appropriate, collaborative research.

Next Generation of Vessels


Maran Tankers welcomes 3rd LNG-powered VLCC into the fleet: A third dual-fuel very large crude carrier (VLCC), named Maran Danae, has been delivered to Maran Tankers Management, an oil tanker shipping unit of the Angelicoussis Shipping Group. South Korean shipbuilder Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI) delivered the ABS-class vessel today, 27 April 2023, and the VLCC will be sailing under the Greek flag. The vessel has a cargo capacity of 320,500 DWT like her sister ships Antonis I. Angelicoussis and Maria A. Angelicoussis.


NYK’s new coal carrier with autonomous navigation system delivered: As informed, the vessel was delivered at the Saiki Shipyard of Honda Heavy Industries Co. on 28 April. The coal carrier is the sister ship of the domestic coastal coal carrier Ushio, which was delivered in July 2022. As part of the 2021 Support Project for R&D in Promoting Aggregation and Cooperation in the Maritime Industry, which is being implemented by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT), new systems for the navigation and engine systems respectively were installed on this vessel on a trial basis, with the aim of realizing the crewed autonomous operation of ships.


Med Marine and Robert Allan to design hybrid, electric tugboats: Canadian naval architectural company Robert Allan and Turkish shipbuilder and tugboat operator Med Marine have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to design electric and hybrid tugs. As disclosed, the agreement was signed in Istanbul on 24 March this year. Specifically, the partners will work on VoltRA series of tugboats. Med Marine named its electric tug series under the registered brand VoltRA series. The tugboats have a range of 21 meters up to 30 meters in various lengths and designs. The vessels will feature hybrid and electric propulsion systems to reduce carbon emissions and meet the net-zero goals.

TotalEnergies, BV, GTT, and LMG Marin to develop large-scale LH2 carrier: French energy major TotalEnergies, classification society Bureau Veritas (BV), LNG containment specialist GTT and ship designer LMG Marin have joined forces to develop a large-scale liquid hydrogen (LH2) carrier. As disclosed, the partners signed a joint development project to work on a 150,000 cbm vessel which will be fitted with GTT’s membrane-type containment system. TotalEnergies will work on defining the vessel’s specifications including the operational profile while GTT will design the membrane containment system, considering the constraints related to liquefied hydrogen. Meanwhile, LMG Marin will define the concept design of the LH2 carrier adapted to TotalEnergies’ specifications and consider the constraints related to the membrane containment system.


SAIC Anji orders four methanol-ready car carriers: As informed, the 9,000 CEU vessels will be built by China Merchants Jinling Shipyard (CMJL Nanjing). They will measure 228 meters in length with a molded depth of 15.4 meters and a width of 37.8 meters. The car carriers will also be scrubber-fitted, to additionally reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. According to the company, the vessels’ engines will be able to run on methanol, which makes the ships future-proof. With the use of environmentally friendly technologies and green fuel, the company expects that the car carriers will meet the International Maritime Organisation’s (IMO) Tier III targets.


Singapore ammonia bunkering gets a reality check from port authority: Top global ship fuelling hub Singapore is unlikely to be ready for ammonia bunkering by the end of this year, Singapore’s Maritime, and Port Authority (MPA) said, while industry players have also raised concerns about feasibility. The port authority’s clarification came after the Global Centre for Maritime Decarbonization (GCMD) said on April 27 that Singapore’s first transfer of ammonia for bunkering could take place by the end of 2023. The MPA said the timeline should not prejudge the outcome of its EOI process, launched with the Energy Market Authority (EMA) of Singapore, to build, own and operate low or zero-carbon hydrogen and ammonia bunkering facilities on Jurong island.

Fratelli Cosulich completes its first biofuel supply: Italian maritime transportation group Fratelli Cosulich, in partnership with IPLOM (Piedmont Industry Processing Mineral Oils), has begun producing and supplying its own bio VLSFO to reduce the GHG intensity of marine fuels and meet the EU requirements. German liner company Hapag-Lloyd provided support and indicated one of its vessels to run the test, and Fratelli said that during the testing, the container vessel burnt the fuel with no issue. To note, the fuel is made up of 10% bio components sourced from an Italian biorefinery ISCC certified. According to Fratelli, this biofuel will enable vessel owners and charterers to reduce GHG emissions by 10% and lower the cost of ETS coverage.

INERATEC and Zenith plan a new e-fuels plant in the port of Amsterdam: German e-fuels supplier INERATEC has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Zenith Energy Terminals to build a power-to-liquid (PtL) plant in the port of Amsterdam. As disclosed, the planned facility will produce up to 35,000 tonnes of e-fuels per year from locally generated and imported green hydrogen and up to 100,000 tonnes per year of CO2 which will be captured from the Dutch industry and used as a key feedstock for the INERATEC process. The company pointed out that the sustainable e-fuels to be produced in Amsterdam will contribute to the Dutch goal of achieving a circular economy and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. INERATEC plans to produce and refine e-fuels including sustainable kerosene, clean diesel, and CO2-neutral gasoline, delivered directly to off-takers active in shipping, aviation, and road transportation as early as 2027.

Maersk welcomes the FuelEU Maritime deal as a launchpad for a global fuel standard: Danish container shipping heavyweight Maersk has hailed the agreement reached on the new FuelEU Maritime regulation, a first-of-its-kind legislation designed to speed up the adoption of green fuels and promote decarbonization in the shipping industry by the end of the decade. FuelEU Maritime takes a comprehensive approach to the climate crisis and covers emissions from the entire process of producing and using fuel, including greenhouse gases such as methane and nitrous oxide. The legislation rewards investments in completely green ships, rather than requiring a smaller reduction in emissions from each individual ship, which will ensure that the necessary investments are made in the most effective areas.

Maersk Growth invests in Danish biofuel producer: Maersk Growth, a venture arm of industry major A. P. Moller – Maersk, has together with VÅR Ventures, invested in Kvasir Technologies, a Danish technology company developing a proprietary technology to produce carbon-neutral biofuel from non-edible biowaste material. The company has raised EUR 2.15 million from this investment round, pushing the total to nearly EUR 7 million this past year, including a EUR 2.5 million non-dilutive grant from the European Innovation Council (EIC) and various other project grants. According to the Danish container shipping major, Maersk’s share of ocean freight transported with green fuels in 2022 was 2 percent. The 2 percent accounts for biofuels, which the company started using on its fleet back in 2019. Maersk said that the use of biofuels tripled in 2022 when compared to 2021, driven by the increased uptake of Maersk’s EcoDelivery ocean product, which involves the utilization of sustainable biofuels on selected company vessels to cut emissions. The Danish major believes that methanol is the only scalable green fuel option this decade as it can be safely used, and it is relatively easy to handle. But it will take time to reach a sufficient scale to cover the demand, so an alternative ‘drop in’ fuel is necessary to fill the gap: biodiesel. The company currently uses only second-generation biodiesel, made from waste and feedstock. Nonetheless, fuel has constrained availability and unpredictable price subject to volatile swings.

CO2 Storage

BV approves Technip Energies’ floating CO2 storage and injection concept: French engineering company Technip Energies has received Approval in Principle (AiP) from compatriot classification society Bureau Veritas (BV) for its Offshore C-Hub concept. Technip’s Offshore C-Hub concept is a floating vessel that receives liquid CO2 from shuttle tankers, provides buffer storage of liquid CO2 in its hull, and continuous injection of the CO2 into an offshore aquifer or depleted reservoir. Its storage volumes can be adapted to each project’s specificities and associated logistic chain deployed to transport the CO2 (e.g temporary storage capacities could range from 20,000 to 40,000m3), Technip explains. According to the company, this concept offers a reliable, safe, and cost-effective solution for the permanent storage of CO2 in offshore reservoirs.

Ship financing

Petredec Global lands $315M loan for 6 dual-fuel VLGCs: Singapore-based integrated LPG company Petredec Global has secured a $ 315 million loan from a syndicate of international banks to finance six 93,000 cbm VLGCs with dual-fuel LPG propulsion. The ships are on order at Jiangnan Shipyard (Group) Co. Ltd and are expected to be delivered throughout 2023 and early 2024. The first vessel from the batch, Harzand, was named and delivered earlier this week. the vessel has been described as the world’s largest VLGC.

Navigator Gas signs gender diversity-linked loan facility agreement: Navigator Gas, owner and operator of handy size liquefied gas carriers, has entered into a secured term loan facility that includes sustainability and gender diversity-linked performance indicators. According to Navigator Gas, the facility agreement contains certain conditions, covenants, and events of default, including a sustainability-linked margin adjustment with two key performance indicators (KPIs). One KPI is linked to fleet environmental criteria and the second is linked to percentage targets for women in leadership roles at Navigator each year, with an initial target of 22% by the end of 2023, increasing year by year to a final target of 35% of women in leadership roles by 2028.


Port of Aberdeen to invest £55 million to become net-zero by 2040: Port of Aberdeen has revealed its commitment to invest £55 million over the next 10 years to become the UK’s first net-zero port by 2040.

As informed, the port is targeting net-zero emissions from vessels visiting the port, as well as the port’s own operations, by 2040. This ambitious target is at the core of the Port of Aberdeen’s net zero strategy which focuses on collaborating with stakeholders across the private and public sectors to reduce emissions in the port, facilitate future low-carbon fuels, and support the energy transition. To track its progress towards net zero, Port of Aberdeen will measure its emissions against a 2019 baseline, with 55,000 tonnes of CO2 equivalent emitted across scope 1, 2, and 3. Notably, 97% of emissions were attributed to 9,500 vessel arrivals, recorded as scope 3. Additionally, the port is measuring performance against a carbon intensity metric based on gross vessel tonnage, once the new Aberdeen South Harbour development has been fully operational for 12 months.

Port of Rotterdam, HGK Shipping team up on sustainability of inland waterways: HGK Shipping and the Port of Rotterdam Authority signed a long-term cooperation agreement to promote sustainable concepts for inland waterway services leading to and from seaports. As disclosed, the document primarily focuses on the energy revolution and logistics for hydrogen, as well as reducing CO2 emissions by using innovative drive concepts and digitalization. These topics are important to ensure reliable and sustainable supplies for industry. The agreement ensures that stable supply chains will continue between Germany and the Netherlands, and within Europe. Among other things, the partners will analyze how the need for services to transport, store and tranship alternative energy sources will probably develop. Another important factor in this connection is how to make the inland waterway fleet more ecologically friendly and draw up implementation concepts for renewable engine fuels.

Air Products to provide LNG tech and equipment for Sempra’s Port Arthur project: Industrial gases company Air Products has secured a contract to provide its proprietary LNG process technology, equipment, and advisory services to Sempra Infrastructure’s Port Arthur LNG Phase 1 project in Jefferson County, Texas. Air Products signed the agreement with Bechtel Energy, a company that will deliver the detailed engineering, procurement, construction (EPC), commissioning, startup, performance testing, and operator training activities for Phase 1 of the project. With the final investment decision (FID) in place, the Port Arthur LNG Phase 1 project is fully permitted and is designed to include two natural gas liquefaction trains, two LNG storage tanks, and associated facilities with a nameplate capacity of approximately 13 million tonnes per annum (mtpa). The expected commercial operation dates for Trains 1 and 2 are projected for 2027 and 2028.


EU carbon levy pressurizes metal: An initial agreement between the European Parliament and Council on a Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) to crack down on carbon leakage will have ramifications for aluminium trade, and possibly before the end of the year. While the agreement still needs to be confirmed and adopted by EU member states and the European Parliament, the provisional agreement of a transitional phase could be in place by October.

The CBAM is designed to shore up the EU’s Emission Trading System (ETS) and aid the bloc’s goal of carbon emission reduction of 55% by 2030 compared with 1990, leading to net zero by 2050. The CBAM agreement will impose a levy on goods imported into the EU based on their emissions footprint to be phased in from 2026 to 2034. It will initially apply to those imports with carbon-intensive production – those with the greatest risk of carbon leakage. Those are cement, iron and steel, aluminum, fertilizers, electricity, and hydrogen. Although all imports will eventually be covered by the tax.

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Source: Xinde Maritime


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