Tips to Reduce P&I and H&M Claims


Claims at a Glance is intended as a tool to reduce the frequency of incidents for both P&I and H&M claims.


It is clear that the root causes as to why casualties occur are similar between different claim types.  It is also obvious that the key to reducing the number of casualties is to establish a sustainable safety culture both onshore as well as on board.  Equally important is to secure ‘buy-in’ from top management level through to crew level on the ships.  Successful implementation of such a safety culture will lead to a reduction in the number of casualties.

Discover the true root cause of a casualty as opposed to simply addressing the immediate symptoms.

Protection & Indemnity (P&I) Claims

Main areas of concern

  • Not cleaning and preparing the cargo room properly
  • Poor maintenance
  • Inherent vice* – cargo not in proper condition when loaded
  • Not securing cargo according to the cargo manual
  • Cargo manifest is not correct and does not include all IMDG (International Maritime Dangerous Goods) cargo
  • Crew ignoring bilge alarms in cargo holds
  • Not avoiding heavy weather and excessive speed in heavy weather
  • Procedures not implemented correctly
  • Equipment not secured for sea
  • Not issuing or following work permits and risk assessments

* Inherent vice: risk of deterioration of goods shipped as a result of their natural behaviour in the ordinary course of a voyage without the intervention of any random external accident or casualty.


  • Load as per the cargo securing manual and cargo plan
  • Conduct a survey of the cargo condition throughout the entire loading operation and take samples
  • Consult IMDG and IMSBC (International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes Code) for characteristics of commodities
  • Weather routeing should be used to avoid heavy weather
  • The crew should keep detailed records of the cargo on board
  • Plans for loading/discharging to be made and followed in detail and documented
  • Ensure there are no obstacles or debris on the deck or other working areas
  • All officers should receive training on how to identify risks and ensure they understand how to use risk assessments

Hull & Machinery (H&M) Claims

Main areas of concern

  • Insufficient planning and experience/training
  • Non-compliance with the manager’s procedures
  • Procedures that are unclear, not comprehensive enough or not implemented correctly
  • Not having experts attending major overhauls
  • Not understanding limitations and how to properly use equipment and technology  
  • Poor lookout
  • Lack of communication
  • Not completing a correct passage plan

Prevention – Navigational claims

  • Have a detailed navigation policy which includes descriptions and suggested settings for the bridge equipment
  • Have multiple officers on the bridge during critical operations so one person’s mistake can be detected and rectified
  • Carry out a thorough audit of the navigation policy during the internal audit
  • Implement MRM (Maritime Resource Management) training which focuses on proper communication
  • Ensure communication is by closed loop communication

Prevention – Machinery

  • Carry out on board fuel management and fuel system audits where the various parts (including separators) of the fuel treatment plant should be checked for proper functions
  • Monitor the quality of the lubrication oil and ensure that samples of lubrication oils are sent ashore for analysis at least every three months, with a complete lube oil charge spare retained on board  
  • During major overhauls it is highly recommended to have an expert in attendance

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Source: Swedish Club


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