Era Of Green Fuels: Understanding Their Types And Challenges


As the maritime industry braces itself to decarbonize, concerns over carbon emissions escalate, thus intensifying the quest for alternate energy sources. Amidst this, an array of alternative energy sources are emerging and promise to redefine the future of maritime.


Biofuels have taken centre stage in the maritime industry’s shift towards sustainable fuel alternatives. Derived from organic materials, these fuels are gaining prominence due to their increasing availability across diverse geographic locations. Utilizing local biomass, agricultural by-products, and even municipal waste, biofuels are promising for reducing carbon emissions in marine shipping (“Biofuels for Marine Shipping,” U.S. Department of Energy).

One of the key advantages of biofuels lies in their compatibility with existing distribution networks, requiring minimal adaptations for bunkering infrastructure. This means that the transition to biofuels can be relatively seamless, offering a sense of relief to crew members who can easily monitor engine parameters without the need for significant adjustments or additional health risks.


Methanol, a tried and tested fuel in various transportation sectors, emerges as a formidable contender in the maritime industry’s quest for sustainable alternatives.

Numerous leading shipping companies have made strides by announcing the integration of methanol as an alternative fuel for their newly constructed vessels. However, methanol’s viability hinges upon adopting renewable production pathways.

One of methanol’s standout features is its widespread availability, owing to its utilization across diverse industrial processes. This versatility positions methanol as a flexible solution for reducing carbon footprints, as it can be sourced from natural gas or renewable resources such as biomass, carbon dioxide, and renewable power.

Major methanol production plants in regions like the Middle East, the U.S., and China bolster its global capacity, with industry leaders like Methanex ensuring a reliable supply chain for maritime applications.

Compared to alternative fuels like LNG or hydrogen, methanol offers distinct advantages in terms of infrastructure requirements. Minor adjustments suffice to accommodate its characteristics, including corrosion resistance and containment systems for toxicity, leveraging existing liquid fuel bunkering infrastructure. Notably, ports like Rotterdam and Antwerp serve as exemplars, boasting methanol handling facilities that set a precedent for global ports seeking to adopt similar measures.


Hydrogen, the most abundant element in the universe, has also emerged as a prominent candidate in the pursuit of green fuels for the maritime industry. The main types of hydrogen include:

Green Hydrogen: Produced through electrolysis powered by renewable energy sources like hydroelectric, solar, or wind energy, green hydrogen is the most sustainable option. However, its supply is currently limited by the capacity of electrolysis infrastructure and renewable energy sources. Nevertheless, global renewable energy initiatives are rapidly increasing its production (International Renewable Energy Agency).

Blue Hydrogen: Generated from natural gas with carbon emissions captured and either stored or repurposed, blue hydrogen is less harmful to the environment compared to grey hydrogen but still relies on fossil fuels. The existing natural gas infrastructure, which can be adapted with carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology, makes blue hydrogen more accessible than green hydrogen in the near term (International Energy Agency).

Grey Hydrogen: The most common form today, grey hydrogen, is produced from natural gas via steam methane reforming without capturing carbon emissions. It takes advantage of the established natural gas pipeline and processing infrastructure, making it the most readily available hydrogen fuel currently (U.S. Energy Information Administration).


Ammonia, primarily known for its use as a fertilizer in agriculture, has garnered attention as a potential marine fuel due to its ability to be produced using renewable energy sources. With around 175 million tonnes produced annually, ammonia boasts a substantial global production capacity, providing a solid foundation for its use in maritime applications (“Global Ammonia Production,” International Fertilizer Association).

However, using ammonia as a fuel presents significant safety challenges. Ammonia is caustic and hazardous, necessitating stringent safety measures to prevent environmental contamination and protect the health of crew members. Effective handling, storage, and emergency response plans are essential to mitigate these risks (“Ammonia as a Maritime Fuel: Safety Considerations,” Lloyd’s Register).

In the maritime sector, evaluating the availability, safety, and infrastructure requirements of each fuel is crucial in the transition to green fuels. Addressing the technological, infrastructural, and regulatory challenges requires global collaboration.

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Source: MarineInsight